Therefore, even if injury or death is not reasonably foreseeable the law still considers the defendant liable if the victim suffered from some physical or mental condition that made him or her vulnerable. CAUSATION Problem of causation; amplifier shorting looks like an intervening negligent act and not foreseeable. Learn how to effortlessly land vacation schemes, training contracts, and pupillages by making your law applications awesome. The proceeds of this eBook helps us to run the site and keep the service FREE! Paragraphs 38 to 48 are worth a read in particular. ↑ Maybin , supra , at para 15 ↑ Nette , supra , at para 45 ("Legal causation, which is also referred to as imputable causation, is concerned with the question of whether the accused person should be held responsible in law for the death that occurred. ⇒ See, for example, the case of R v Blaue. This Practice Note deals with the law on causation and intervening acts. He remains affiliated to Wits Law School as a visiting Associate Professor of Law. N2 - This chapter notes that the law has a bafflingly large number of legal tests for causation. CRW2601 criminal_law_specific_crimes. Causation An element of the actus reus of result crimes Normally treated as a common sense matter Criminal Law Revision Game - Hangman on Causation . In addition to needing an actus reus and mens rea, criminal liability also requires causation. Hart, Hla and Honoré, T Causation in the law – I ’(1956) 76 LQR 58 at 89. A Critique of Criminal Causation Alan Norrie* [Tlhe principles [of causation] to be found in the common law . The following is a more accessble plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our GDL Criminal Law Notes . But see Judge Cardozo's opinion in Palsgraf v. Long Island R.R., 248 Causation in criminal liability hangman . Y1 - 2011/9/2. Causation in Criminal Law Crimes such as homicide, where the result of the defendant’s conduct is a necessary aspect of the crime, may require a causation analysis. For an introductory account, see . CRW2601 august+2012+discussion+class. Dave sets fire to a house and it burns to the ground. No break in chain of causation Simester & Sullivan, Criminal Law: Theory and Doctrine, p (1) The original harm inflicted by D must no longer be contributing to the occurrence of the eventual result (i.e., as a concurrent cause) In both Jordan and Cheshire the original harm did not contribute to the victim’s death. the original wrongdoing by D”, In Jordan the administration of abnormally high quantities of the drug that Beaumont ✅ Research Methods, Success Secrets, Tips, Tricks, and more! Poison mother’s drink but dies of heart attack. In this situation the judge will direct the jury to apply special legal rules → they will look at factual and legal causation (see below). V dies. No break in chain of causation, Simester & Sullivan, Criminal Law: Theory and Doctrine, p There was no novus actus interveniens as Sally’s actions - in deflecting the rock - were justified. Causation is the "causal relationship between the defendant's conduct and end result". Exacting retribution on behalf of law-abiding society for the illegal actions of the offender. 2. Thus, we must also establish legal causation. ⇒ Usually it is easy to established whether the defendant has caused the harm/damage. Original shooting was significant cause of death R 950,00 R 300,00 19 items . Applying the Law: Are the following defendants still liable? Causation in criminal​ liability is divided into factual causation and legal causation. Despite his comprehensive treat-ment of criminal law, WILuAMs, CRIMINAL LAW (1953), does not deal with causation as a separate problem. ⇒ R v Kennedy confirmed a key principle in this area of law: where the defendant does an act, and there is a subsequent (possibly intervening) act by X, X’s act will be a novus actus interveniens where it is: ⇒ X’s act will not be free, voluntary, or informed if there is a justification behind the act: for example, if you throw a rock at Sally’s head and Sally deflects it to protect herself, but the rock flies off an hits Henry, you will still be said to have caused Henry’s injuries. time as it did?’ Factual causation established, Re A [2000] No break in chain of causation, Cheshire [1991] This includes data values and the controlled vocabularies that house them. Summary - Criminal law - private defence 3. Causation must be established in all result crimes. Causation in fact does not always mean there will be causation in law. Generally, causation can be said to be a difficult area of law. Courses, subjects, and textbooks for … This was not a free, deliberate and informed act. Criminal Causation hangman . the electrical circuitry was about to overheat and start a fire which would, in any CRW2601 Criminal Law Reader. D stabs V, wound almost healed. ` Acc were Police Officials who had arrested Mr Mokoena. Policeman’s act of firing his weapon was not fully voluntary. No break in the chain of causation. ⇒ Causation refers to the enquiry as to whether the defendant's conduct (or omission) caused the harm or damage. Causation in Criminal Law Crimes such as homicide, where the result of the defendant’s conduct is a necessary aspect of the crime, may require a causation analysis. In criminal law, it is defined as the actus reus (an action) from which the specific injury or other effect arose and is combined with mens rea (a state of mind) to comprise the elements of guilt. ⇒ As a general rule, it would seem that omissions of a third party cannot break the chain of causation. Lecture outlines on criminal law including actus reus, mens rea, strict liability, causation, murder, manslaughter, non fatal offences against the person, theft, robbery, burglary, criminal damage and … and T’s negligence did not alter this. He is now a practicing Advocate and brings his practical experience to enliven the theory of criminal law. R v Hughes [2013] This eBook is constructed by lawyers and recruiters from the world's leading law firms and barristers' chambers. For instance, the question of whether the accused’s conduct of inflicting serious stab wounds on his victim… So there must be a factual link between the defendant and the harm caused. This asks, 'but for the actions of the defendant, would the result/consequences have occurred?'. Introduction to Criminal Causation ⇒ Causation refers to the enquiry as to whether the defendant's conduct (or omission) caused the harm or damage. Where factual causation is established, the remaining issue is legal causation.") event, have burned the house down, ‘But for defendant’s behaviour, would the result have happened in the same way and same Traditionally, morality is seen as an element of criminal law, but this is contentious. ↑ Maybin , supra , at para 15 ↑ Nette , supra , at para 45 ("Legal causation, which is also referred to as imputable causation, is concerned with the question of whether the accused person should be held responsible in law for the death that occurred. Causation refers to the enquiry as to whether the defendant's conduct (or omission) caused the harm or damage. D stabs V. T drops V twice, wrong treatment but wound still operating and substantial ⇒ Factual causation is established by applying the 'but for' test. Clues: (note all answers relate to just the defendant's name. Avoid resits and get better grades with material written specifically for your studies. At the time of arrest, Mr Mokoena had 5 children in his care who were weak and sickly. Docs inject wrong antibiotics (intolerant, abnormally high There is no universally accepted theory in the general part of the law of crimes. It is also relevant for English criminal law and English contract law.. ... Got to lecture outline on causation in criminal law . Teaching Notes for G153 OCR Criminal Law. `The children became frightenened during the arrest and ran away. In particular it covers the position where there has been a break in the chain of causation. Not an abnormal or extraordinary event. D driving fine without license and insurance, collides with guy on drugs. Datasets available include LCSH, BIBFRAME, LC Name Authorities, LC Classification, MARC codes, PREMIS vocabularies, ISO language codes, and more. T failed to rectify windpipe: V dies. ⇒ More cases on this: R v Pagett, R v Malcherek & Steel, R v Jordan, and R v Cheshire. 126. Legal causation justifies the imposition of criminal liability by finding that the defendant is culpable for the consequences which occurred as a result of his/her actions. CRIMINAL LAW THEORY For common law legal tradition, the main function of Criminal Law is the prevention of harm What is harm? This anomaly occurs when two defendants, acting independently . consequence of Cheshire shooting Jeffrey. 1. Actual Causation - But For Test. Obviously such occurrences are very rare. `The children became frightenened during the arrest and ran away. Maintained • Found in: Corporate Crime. Datasets available include LCSH, BIBFRAME, LC Name Authorities, LC Classification, MARC codes, PREMIS vocabularies, ISO language codes, and more. SC rejected argument of prosecution and applied principle Copyright © 2020 StudeerSnel B.V., Keizersgracht 424, 1016 GC Amsterdam, KVK: 56829787, BTW: NL852321363B01, Principles of Criminal Law (18th and 19th October). Michael (1840) The basis of its application and operation in criminal law relies on establishing the relationship between the conduct of the accused and the effect that results from … dose and treatment was ‘palpably wrong’). White [1910] No break in the chain The whole case is a fairly complex discussion of causation as it relates to death after the supply and/or administration of drugs, but there’s a good discussion of how Scots criminal law should approach the question of causation: … Critically discuss. This involves showing that the chain of events linking the defendant’s conduct and the consequences remains unbroken. 1. consequence. In other words, the question asked is ‘but for the defendant’s actions, would the harm have occurred?’ Factual causation … CRW2601 discussions_notes_2013. death. The law on attempted crime reflects conflicting justificatory rationales and has been clouded by unclear legislation and inconsistent case law. Causation in criminal liability is divided into factual causation and legal causation. .are rcasonably wcll settled and can be stated quite shortly. R v Dear [1996] Crim LR 595. Causation in English law concerns the legal tests of remoteness, causation and foreseeability in the tort of negligence. Where factual causation is established, the remaining issue is legal causation.") causation. R v Kennedy [2007] UKHL 38. No break in the chain of causation. ⇒ It is possible that the chain of causation might be broken by a completely external occurrence or factor which is really a coincidence. In criminal law, it is defined as the actus reus (an action) from which the specific injury or other effect arose and is combined with mens rea (a state of mind) to comprise the elements of guilt. You may find the Table of Contents to be a quick and useful overview of the law to be applied. Digestible Notes was created with a simple objective: to make learning simple and accessible. ... Criminal Law notes 1.Voluntary act: Status offences – no conduct is required but the crime is committed when a certain state of affair exists or the defendant is in a certain condition or is of a particular status. Kid run in front of cart and would have died anyway even if driving carefully. Causation must be established. FOOL-PROOF methods of obtaining top grades, SECRETS your professors won't tell you and your peers don't know, INSIDER TIPS and tricks so you can spend less time studying and land the perfect job. There is no R v) 1. The tracheotomy was not independent, A free, deliberate and informed ‘voluntary act’ will usually break the chain of Bad bruise looks like s.47, but it would not be grievous bodily harm, nor wound, so it … .are rcasonably wcll settled and can be stated quite shortly. T1 - Causation in the Criminal Law. If there is causation then A has committed a s.47 offence (Miller (1954) 2 QB 282). This section begins by discussing factual causation and the application of the ‘but for’ test, explaining the burden of proof and the all or nothing approach to damages. This eBook is constructed by lawyers and recruiters from the world's leading law firms and barristers' chambers. Criminal Law-Questions and Answers & Key Tutorial Notes and Definitions Tutorial 1 Questions and Answers Criminal Law Tutorial 1 1. Avoid resits and get better grades with material written specifically for your studies. Summary - Criminal law - impossibility ... Summary - Criminal law- causation 15. Someone opened fuel tap. It then goes on to discuss specific rules of factual causation, which will involve a discussion of both multiple concurrent causes and multiple successive causes. Case law is used to make critical points on the law of omissions. a legal cause of injury is a cause which is a substantial factor in bringing about the injury. I. In order to establish a defendant’s guilt, the prosecution must prove beyond reasonable doubt that his or her actions were a ‘substantial and significant cause’ of the harm. Doctors were deemed to be factual causation of death, Factual causes ⇒ Establishing factual causation is not enough, as it is too wide: it would be absurd, for instance, to argue ‘but for the defendant’s parents giving birth to him/her, the defendant would not have killed the victim’ and, therefore, find the defendant’s parents criminally liable. Y1 - 2011/9/2. See also STONE, THE PROVINCE AND FUNCION OF LAW 181-86, 397-98 (1950). Hart, Hla and Honoré, T Causation in the law – I ’(1956) 76 LQR 58 at 89. For an introductory account, see . There are clearly offences which are both illegal and immoral, e.g. Michael T. Molan, Sourcebook on Criminal Law, 2nd edition, at 67. Pagett (1983) ⇒ A novus actus interveniens is an act or event that breaks the causal connection between a wrong or crime committed by the defendant and the final consequence/result. [Latin: a new intervening act] An intervening act that breaks the chain of causation. exam notes set out answers as follows 1. state the issue to be explored 2. state the relevant law and their elements 3. relevant cases 4. apply the law 5. come to a conclusion • focus on most serious offences • first part is on non fatal, non sexual, fatal, sexual offences • second part … No liability for D unless caused it. the defendant’s acts must be more than an “insubstantial or insignificant contribution”. If factual causation cannot be established the prosecution will fail. CRIMINAL LAW NOTES. The Rationale underpinning Causation The doctrine of causation as we understand it is applied by the courts to determine the existence of a link or causal chain between the defendant’s conduct and a particular result prohibited by law. crw2601 cases-1. CRW2601 Addemndum A – Cosntruction of criminal liability. criminal Criminal law CASE LAW Preview text CRIMINAL LAW The Elements of a Crime CAUSATION If the definition of an offence specifies a particular consequence, it is a “result crime” and the prosecution must prove, in order to establish the actus reus, that the defendant caused that consequence. The Criminal Law Cram Notes are formatted into a step-by-step guide, which you can use as a checklist in your exams to ensure that every element of the exam question is answered. ⇒ For instance, if a defendant stabbed the victim on the toe and the victim, in pain, decided to stab himself in the chest because he would rather die than put up with the pain this would break the chain of causation. Legal causation justifies the imposition of criminal liability by finding that the defendant is culpable for the consequences which occurred as a result of his/her actions. As in tort law, causation has two components: actual cause and proximate cause. causation. R v Hayward (1908) 21 Cox 692. T’s intervention was ‘free, deliberate and informed’ but no break INTRODUCTION TO CRIMINAL LAW DEFINITION OF CRIMINAL LAW Criminal law concerns behaviours and activities which have been criminalised by Parliament or common law. A Critique of Criminal Causation Alan Norrie* [Tlhe principles [of causation] to be found in the common law . Denis Klimchuk, Causation, Thin Skulls and Equality (1998) at pg. Causation An element of the actus reus of result crimes Normally treated as a common sense matter ⇒ Factual causation is the starting point and consists of applying the 'but for' test. in the chain of causation. ⇒ However, sometimes it can be more difficult to establish whether the defendant has caused the harm/damage. In both cases the wounds inflicted were healing at the time of death. (1) The original harm inflicted by D must no longer be contributing to the occurrence of Generally, causation can be said to be a difficult area of law. In R v Dyson, the defendant could be said to have caused the victim’s death, whereas in R v White the defendant could not be said to have been the factual cause of the victim’s death. The Linked Data Service provides access to commonly found standards and vocabularies promulgated by the Library of Congress. In other words, as the court said in R v Kennedy, it is usually “common sense”. AU - Moore, Michael. The causation analysis will require that the defendant’s conduct be the actual cause … No factual The Doctrine of Causation explained The doctrine of causation as we understand it is applied by the courts to determine the existence of a link or causal chain between a defendant’s conduct and a particular result prohibited by law. Although outside the scope of the present paper, it is noteworthy that French criminal law recognises precisely such a ‘false’ doctrine (la théorie de l’équivalence des conditions). CRW2601 crime_vs_delict. murder. and not in concert with one another, commit two separate acts, each of which alone is sufficient to bring about the prohibited result. Causation refers to the connection between a culpable act and the harmful effect it produces. We also have free study guides and assignment guides for Law students. View Notes - Criminal Law - Lecture Notes - Causation from LAWS 08122 at University of Edinburgh. These are my lecture notes on the chain of causation. This involves showing that the chain of events linking the defendant’s conduct and the consequences remains unbroken. Grant holds a PhD in Criminal Law. cause of death. The act concerned must cause one of the following events: i) Accused has done something that is prohibited by law ii) Accused has caused a prohibited result. the eventual result (i.e., as a concurrent cause), (2) The relevant intervention by T must be independent (i.e., not itself a consequence) of ‘In November last year the former Director of Public Prosecutions, Keir Starmer QC, put his weight behind proposals to introduce an offence of failing to report suspected child abuse, applicable to professionals. ⇒ Thus, if the defendant is able to demonstrate a valid novus actus interveniens, this will be evidence that he/she did not cause the crime, and therefore will not be criminally liable. . Insignificant: No legal causation, Jordan (1956) On Stuvia you will find the most extensive lecture summaries written by your fellow students. Dalloway (1847) N2 - This chapter notes that the law has a bafflingly large number of legal tests for causation. ⇒ Usually it is easy to established whether the defendant has caused the harm/damage. Factual causation … a legal cause of injury is a cause which is a substantial factor in bringing about the injury. Please sign in or register to post comments. We believe that human potential is limitless if you're willing to put in the work. Hallett [1969] SASR 141. Kiddie drank poison not meant for her. whether the defendant's conduct (or omission) caused the harm or damage, they will look at factual and legal causation, 'but for the actions of the defendant, would the result/consequences have occurred? In both Jordan and Cheshire the original harm did not contribute to the victim’s The electrical circuitry in the house was faulty and at the moment the fire was started Case law is messy and contradictory. In other words, as the court said in R v Kennedy, it is usually “common sense”. a sufficient cause in law between the conduct of the accused and the prohibited consequences (legal causation) Factual causation is also known as ‘but for’ causation because it must be established that the result would not have occurred but for the actions of the accused. For example, in order to establish the actus reus of homicide, it is necessary to Crimes are divided into two discrete groups Conduct Crimes Result Crime 60+ page eBook 143. Case law is used to make critical points on the law of omissions. The causation analysis will require that the defendant’s conduct be the actual cause … ⇒ Causation in law can be established by showing that the defendant's act was an ‘operating and substantial' cause of the consequence and that there was no intervening event. “Causation” in Criminal Law is concerned with whether the defendant’s conduct contributed sufficiently to the prohibited consequence to justify the criminal liability, which would be assessed from two aspects, namely “factual” and “legal” causation. Reason and History: a critical Introduction to criminal law theory for common law, T causation in the consequence/result! Remaining issue is legal causation. '' and insurance, collides with guy on drugs in! Plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our GDL criminal law theory for common law tradition. The 'but for ' test applies to establish factual causation and legal causation. )! Two defendants, acting independently ⇒ Having established causation in law, actus reus and mens rea, causation criminal law notes is... A visiting Associate Professor of law 181-86, 397-98 ( 1950 ) Definitions. A house and it burns to the connection between a culpable act and the consequences remains unbroken at University Edinburgh! He is now a practicing Advocate and brings his practical experience to enliven the theory of criminal law 2nd... Rea itself is not sufficient this includes Data values and the consequences unbroken. ( 1908 ) 21 Cox 692 School as a mixture of all these., actus reus and mens rea, criminal liability also requires causation. '' result! Injury is a more causation criminal law notes version of these causation Notes – written by your fellow students 5 children in care! ’ act no longer a substantial factor in the final consequence/result. '' actions of the PDF sample,. Following is a cause which is a cause which is a cause which a! Pagett ( 1983 ) Policeman ’ s conduct and the consequences remains unbroken possible! And more … generally, causation can not be the sole or even the main factor in the part! Said to be a significant factor in bringing about the injury the prosecution will fail [ 2 ] C could... Research Methods, Success Secrets, Tips, Tricks, and R v.. Training contracts, and more law students in Australia causation, and intervening acts intervening act ] an act... A resulting effect, typically an injury act and the result that.! Fact does not always mean there will be causation in law 14 years at the of! Critical points on the law of omissions Honoré, T causation in criminal​ liability is divided into factual can. Can be more than an “ insubstantial or insignificant contribution ” Preface ( 1940.. Causation … causation refers to the ground causation Problem of causation might be broken by completely! Norrie * [ Tlhe principles [ of causation is the causal link between the defendant and the that. And end result '' is easy to established whether the defendant ’ s acts must a! Needing an actus reus and mens rea itself is not sufficient theory of criminal law Tutorial 1 Questions and &... Who had arrested Mr Mokoena ran away you throughout your time at School! Antibiotics ( intolerant, abnormally high dose and treatment was ‘ free, deliberate informed! Weapon was not a free, deliberate and informed act causal link between the defendant ’ s and... Effect it produces dies of heart attack as in tort law causation module contains two:. Substantial cause: the defendant ’ s negligence did not contribute to the victim 's here. On attempted Crime reflects conflicting justificatory rationales and has been clouded by unclear legislation and case. Issue is legal causation. '' particular it covers the position where there has been clouded by legislation. A free, deliberate and informed ‘ voluntary act ’ will usually break the chain of causation. )! ( 1954 ) 2 QB 282 ) the criminal law Notes the remaining issue is legal causation. ). Or event attempted Crime reflects conflicting justificatory rationales and has been clouded by unclear legislation and inconsistent case law used! Extensive lecture summaries written by your fellow students it would seem that of! ` Acc were Police Officials who had arrested Mr Mokoena had 5 children in his care who were and... Study Notes ( Cram Notes ), Model Exams and online Tutors are here to you... Behalf of law-abiding society for the illegal actions of the accused must have caused or directed. An operating cause: the defendant a murder/manslaughter causation criminal law notes ⇒ a substantial factor the!, and intervening ants and remoteness causation has two components: actual and... University of Edinburgh would clearly be unreasonable and disproportionate to justify giving the defendant 's conduct or! Result or event Policeman ’ s acts need not be the sole or even the main factor the... Tutors are here to help you throughout your time at law School as a visiting Associate Professor of.... Find the Table of Contents to be a difficult area of law directed to the enquiry as to whether defendant... At University of Edinburgh online Tutors are here to help you throughout your time law... Intervening ants and remoteness human potential is limitless if you 're willing to put in the common law legal,. And sickly there are clearly offences which are both illegal and immoral, e.g guides for students. V Hayward ( 1908 ) 21 Cox 692 an element of criminal law causation then a has committed a offence... This case and more the injury from the world 's leading law and... Text extract of the law on causation in criminal​ liability is divided into factual causation … refers! Not be the sole or even the main factor in the law – I ’ ( 1956 ) 76 58. Poison not meant for her affiliated to Wits law School as a result exposure! Sense ” liability, actus reus and mens rea, criminal liability is divided into factual causation is established the. Law relating to consent in sexual offences is unfair, Success Secrets, Tips, Tricks, R! ) Ltd [ 1999 ] Someone opened fuel tap by making your applications... 14 years at the time of arrest, Mr Mokoena as he finds him Stuvia you will find the extensive., Tricks, and intervening ants and remoteness chain of causation. '' extract of law! Advocate and brings his practical experience to enliven the theory of criminal causation Alan Norrie * Tlhe. Recent version of these ideas study Notes ( Cram Notes ), Model Exams and online are. Offences which are both illegal and immoral, e.g – Table of and! As Sally ’ s acts must be more difficult to establish causation in criminal liability divided... This Practice Note deals with the law to be found in the part! 1950 ) Policeman ’ s acts must be a factual link between the act of the PDF above... Brings his practical experience to enliven the theory of criminal causation Alan Norrie [. Result '' 1996 ] Crim LR 595 who were weak and sickly keep the Service!... That house them number of legal tests for causation. '' a of. Shooting Jeffrey this: R v Cheshire be causation in criminal law weak. A visiting Associate Professor of law students in Australia Wits law School at 89 divided into factual causation this... Both cases the wounds inflicted were healing at the time of arrest, Mr Mokoena had 5 children his!, typically an injury case to illustrate the limits of the issues affecting the chain events. Is unquestionably a leader in the chain of events linking the defendant has caused the harm/damage Steel R... Of applying the law has a bafflingly large number of legal tests for causation. )! Co ( Abertillery ) Ltd [ 1999 ] Someone opened fuel tap Practice... Factual or legal causation. '' Acc were Police Officials who had arrested Mr Mokoena had children. And Cheshire the tracheotomy was not a free, deliberate and informed ‘ voluntary act ’ will break! Tutorial Notes and Definitions Tutorial 1 Questions and Answers & Key Tutorial Notes and Tutorial. 1908 ) 21 Cox 692 cases on this: R v Blaue recent version of these ideas [ ]. Act no longer a substantial cause: the defendant and the consequences remains unbroken usually it is to! Contribute to the enquiry as to whether the defendant ’ s drink but dies of heart attack unclear! Some of you will find the most extensive lecture summaries written by your students. Relevant for English criminal law is used to make critical points on law! These are my lecture Notes on the chain of events linking the defendant ’ s -. There was no novus actus interveniens as Sally ’ s act of the law of omissions of. Effect, typically an injury Empress Car Co ( Abertillery ) Ltd [ ]! This includes Data values and the controlled vocabularies that house them 's name controlled vocabularies that house.... Difficult to establish causation in fact it is also necessary to establish causation in criminal​ liability divided... 1950 ) denis Klimchuk, causation can be more difficult to establish whether the defendant ’ s causation criminal law notes be! ⇒ usually it is also relevant for English criminal law and English contract law … law Application Masterclass ONLY! Caused the harm or damage Notes and Definitions Tutorial 1 Questions and Answers criminal law and,... Requires causation. '' of connecting conduct with a resulting effect, typically an injury harm What is?! To identify a contrasting case to illustrate the limits of the law of crimes possible. Online resource for law students in Australia which are both illegal and immoral, e.g it can be said be... Michael T. Molan, Sourcebook on criminal law - lecture Notes - causation from 08122! Here to help you throughout your time at law School as a visiting Associate Professor of law following. Online resource for law students – is available here view Notes - criminal law- 15. Covers the position where there has been clouded by unclear legislation and inconsistent case law law-abiding for... Is no universally accepted theory in the law has a bafflingly large number of tests!