For instance, legal positivism is ‘. Positivism is a philosophical theory which states that "genuine" knowledge (knowledge of anything which is not true by definition) is exclusively derived from experience of natural phenomena and their properties and relations. Rather, social scientists must learn to join positivism with subjectivism, thus fusing the two halves of social phenomenal experience. In other words, positivism, by declaring valid only those things which conform to its vigorous standards of investigation, strips social phenomenon of their perceived nature and reveals them as they really are. Whereas experimentation in the natural sciences usually involves the investigation of inanimate or relatively simple objects such as metals, stars, chemicals and so, these having the same properties constantly, in contrast, social phenomenon — people, communities, organizations etc., — are animate and are compositions of vast complexly intertwining feelings, emotions, thoughts, volitions, passions, motives, associations and so on. This claim can hold no weight if it is seen that the natural and social sciences share alike the same methodology and principles of operation. (2002). In all of these fields the dictionary definition of positivism as ‘. Claiming for themselves, in this sense, a parallel certainty of laws and predictions as and laws demanded by the natural sciences, positivism reveals to the social sciences phenomenal objects as they really are — as they are when stripped of superstitions, fallacious theories, prejudice and so on. 201-212); the great complexity coming from the need for the axioms and paradigms which are true of one family unit must, according to pure positivism, be shown to be true of all family units in all places and at all times. It cannot be argued that one of these is better or more relevant than the other. Thus, in this situation the three principal disadvantages of the present political system -arbitrariness, incapacity and intrigue - will be seen to disappear . — of extending science to such extreme levels; secondly, positivism’s applicability in all instances was increasingly undermined by the new theories of social scientists themselves. By approaching the social sciences from a positivist position, social scientists are able to cut away from existing ‘knowledge’ many prejudices, suppositions, superstitions and other non-scientific opinions that have gathered about these social phenomena (Marsh & Smith, 2001). Thus, in short: social sciences must seek to dicover universal conditions behind social phenomena;all social scientific empirical statements must be asolute truthes which are true at all times and true in all places; finally, research can proved only by empirical experimentation. Although positivism encourages researchers to disregard human emotion and behavior, there is no guarantee that this will occur at all times during studies. It cannot be argued that one of these is better or more relevant than the other. 89-95. The naivety of this search for the perfection of methodology and absoluteness of social scientific laws was exposed in the second half of the twentieth century, firstly by the advent of post-modernism (Popper, 1989: p.109-128), which showed the epistemological difficulties — impossibilities? — Popper, Karl R. (1983). In other words: if the social sciences have an exchange of knowledge between themselves and the natural sciences, then every refinement of experimental method, theory, or analysis achieved by the natural sciences may be immediately seized upon and utilized by the social sciences also. At first it was the verifiability criterion of meaningfulness that produced a storm of opposition. A concept that possesses merits is prone to relative disadvantages. — of extending science to such extreme levels; secondly, positivism’s applicability in all instances was increasingly undermined by the new theories of social scientists themselves. 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