Increasing the extent and improving the condition of critical coastal habitats through at-scale restoration, ensuring the re-establishment of natural coastal and hydrological processes. Submerged breakwaters provide wave reduction to varying degrees, similar to coastal habitats and can be located within the near-shore zone. Wildlife Conservation Society / Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America, Affiliation Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SN MWB IJL JNS. According to the EUROSION study (Doody et al. Circle sizes in (a) indicate the % wave height reduction measured at each site; shapes in (b) indicate type of coastal protection benefit reported (erosion control, flood control, or protection to structures) (see Table 1). Ask your question. In their re-analyses of field data, Pinsky et al.,  show high variability in wave reduction between habitats and investigate the influence of biophysical parameters on this variability–namely, the local flow conditions (Reynold’s number) and the resistance to flow provided by the habitat (the bulk drag coefficient). Finally, inclusion of dune and also beach habitats  would vastly improve the richness of existing nature-based defence databases. Positives Negatives; Protects the land and when built high enough will also prevent coastal flooding. Average effect size as log response ratio of the wave reduction, R due to each habitat type for coral reefs, salt-marshes, mangroves and seagrass/kelp beds. (2005) and US Army Corps of Engineers (2015b). Manage urban and agricultural water use, as well as upstream catchment diversions and dams, to ensure that freshwater flow and sediment supply is maintained to the coast. We use economic and social science research to evaluate the benefits and costs of different management actions, to prioritize management needs, and to create policy design that maximizes societal benefits from ocean and coastal resources in a sustainable way. Sustainable coastal development should not, however, be thought of as an "end state". While accurate estimates of construction costs require detailed information on structure profile, material and labour costs, etc., water depth is often a critical driver of construction costs  and therefore the main influence on cost effectiveness. The meta-analyses provide an aggregate assessment across multiple studies, of the effect that each habitat has on wave reduction. For studies that directly report incoming and transmitted wave heights (as opposed to studies that only report percentage reductions) we also showed the variation of absolute reduction extents versus incoming wave heights (see S2 Fig). For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Featuring Santa & Mrs. Claus, Black Santa, multiple languages, and options for Special Needs and Faith-Based visits. Achieving this will require all elements of society to actively promote and implement these solutions. Salt-marshes are almost as effective in terms of wave reduction but occur in more sheltered environments. here. Coastal Planning and Engineering, CH2M HILL / University of Southampton, Swindon, United Kingdom, Affiliation Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. The ocean and coastal zones under South Africa’s jurisdiction can ... economic costs of current sand mining are considered, The authors are very grateful to the three anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments that helped strengthen this paper. do not report incident wave heights, were excluded for these parameters. The number of independent studies analysed is indicated in brackets. To successfully implement long-term ocean and coastal management plans, it is critical governments involve these communities in decision-making processes by: Diverting water before it gets to coastal areas can compromise the quantity and quality of surface water and groundwater. Restoration objectives vary across habitat types, with most mangrove and marsh habitats reporting coastal protection as a primary objective. These are increasingly driven by global conventions and their funding mechanisms, including the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the green Adaptation Fund (AF), as well as the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) and lending from the World Bank.