The empire eventually made Islam the official religion, built mosques, and brought Muslim scholars to Gao.[61]. The Treaty of the Pyrenees, signed in 1659, ended the war between France and Spain and is often considered part of the overall accord. [26] Tokugawa received the title of shōgun in 1603, establishing the Tokugawa shogunate. Later, in 1670–71 the Don Cossacks led by Stenka Razin initiated a major uprising in the Volga region, but the Tsar's troops were successful in defeating the rebels. Sometimes you can get through an entire book and not realize what the author meant. [69], Infant mortality was a global concern during the Early Middle Period as many newborns would not survive into childhood. Rajshree; Post Modernism is a concept that encompasses a wide range of ideals and practices. Advances in all areas of human activity—politics, industry, society, economics, commerce, transport, communication, mechanization, automation, science, medicine, technology, and culture—appear to have transformed an Old World into the Modern or New World. The Silk Road, which led from Europe to East Asia, revived in the 16th century. Theology, the life of the saints and the interpretations of the sacred scriptures are other common themes. The Tsar promulgated a new code of laws (Sudebnik of 1550), established the first Russian feudal representative body (Zemsky Sobor) and introduced local self-management into the rural regions. Modern Age • The Modern Age is the most complex, complicated, baffling and revolutionary age in the history of the world. Concerning the development of Eastern philosophies, much of Eastern philosophy had been in an advanced state of development from study in the previous centuries. The Commercial Revolution is marked by an increase in general commerce, and in the growth of non-manufacturing pursuits, such as banking, insurance, and investing. The Peace of Westphalia resulted from the first modern diplomatic congress. France colonized what is now Eastern Canada, founding Quebec City in 1608. [19], With the xenophobia and intellectual introspection characteristic of the increasingly popular new school of neo-Confucianism, China under the later Ming Dynasty became isolated, prohibiting the construction of ocean going sea vessels. Thus by the end of the 16th century Russia was transformed into a multiethnic, multiconfessional and transcontinental state. The first and second civil wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third war saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. Inventions of the early modern period included the floating dock, lifting tower, newspaper, grenade musket, lightning rod, bifocals, and Franklin stove. The Peace of Utrecht established after a series of individual peace treaties signed in the Dutch city of Utrecht concluded between various European states helped end the War of the Spanish Succession. The search for new routes was based on the fact that the Silk Road was controlled by the Ottoman Empire, which was an impediment to European commercial interests, and other Eastern trade routes were not available to the Europeans due to Muslim control. Almost all the theorists admit that the benefits of rationalization and industrialization, embodied in science and technology, were offset by the environmental and military excesses that scientific and technological progress allows. These characteristics are widely believed to be feelings brought on by the Industrial Revolution and the many social, political and … Problematic for the Safavids was the powerful Ottoman Empire. Religious disagreements between various leading figures led to the emergence of rival Protestant churches. The basic training of the humanist was to speak well and write (typically, in the form of a letter). The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era. The Songhai Empire took control of the trans-Saharan trade at the beginning of the modern era. In the east, the rapid Russian exploration and colonisation of the huge territories of Siberia was led mostly by Cossacks hunting for valuable furs and ivory. Cloudflare Ray ID: 604e103a5ab62679 Because the ships were armed with cannons, Admiral Yi's navy was able to demolish the Japanese invading fleets, destroying hundreds of ships in Japan's second invasion. He returned in 1547 to launch a military campaign against the Schmalkaldic League and to issue an imperial law requiring all Protestants to return to Catholic practices (with a few superficial concessions to Protestant practices). Russia experienced territorial growth through the 17th century, which was the age of Cossacks. The Vijayanagara Empire was based in the Deccan Plateau, but its power was diminished after a major military defeat in 1565 by the Deccan sultanates. Literature & Writing "Of Modern Poetry" is about one thing: what poetry is supposed to be doing in the modern age. As a result, the tax revenues collected by the samurai landowners were worth less and less over time. [60] The Treaty of Utrecht marked the change from Spanish to British naval supremacy. In totality, the Hussite Crusades were inconclusive. In the following century, France would be governed at one point or another as a republic, constitutional monarchy, and two different empires. This period could be related with the Discovery of America What kind of activities While 20th-century literature is a diverse field covering a variety of genres, there are common characteristics that c… The period is characterized by Anglo-French seamen based on Jamaica and Tortuga attacking Spanish colonies and shipping in the Caribbean and eastern Pacific. In England the modern period is often dated to the start of the Tudor period with the victory of Henry VII over Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485. Christopher Columbus came to the Americas in 1492. They seized some Caribbean islands from the Spanish and transferred the model of sugar production on plantations with slave labour and settled in northern areas of North America in what are now the Eastern Seaboard of the United States and Canada.[63]. Anonymous "The Age of Reason Themes". During the Baroque period the Thirty Years' War in Central Europe decimated the population by up to 20%. By the 16th century, Asian economies under the Ming dynasty and Mughal Bengal were stimulated by trade with the Portuguese, the Spanish, and the Dutch, while Japan engaged in the Nanban trade after the arrival of the first European Portuguese during the Azuchi–Momoyama period. These changes took distinct shape in the literature of the 20thcentury. Nations also sought new sources of wealth. The term was first used by 15th-century scholars to designate the period between their own time and the fall of the Western Roman Empire.