So far, we have only understood what our scenarios would do as part of Cucumber best practices. This would save you from unnecessary errors. Let’s see an example: Background:Given The credit card is enabledAnd The available balance in my account is positiveAnd the ATM has enough moneyScenario: …. It is no compulsion to write a scenario with a scenario outline, but you can write it if needed. Let's compare these 2 feature files that I got from automationpanda.com and discuss why the one on the right is a better alternative for the one on the left. You can organize files so that all the features related to a specific functionality are grouped in a package or a directory. Similar to the examples above, you can make combinations of tags as per your requirement and execute the scenarios/features selectively. Don’t be afraid to try: nobody does things perfectly the first time. Doc Strings are useful to add strings of long characters to a step in a neater way. The how part will be taken care of in the Step Definition file, which we will see later in this article. Another disadvantage of writing them this way is that it makes them difficult to maintain. So, writing a "When" after "Then," for example, would not be good conceptually and unclear. Similar to the conventions followed in English, you can write the scenarios in multiple human languages. Harshit works as a product growth specialist at LambdaTest. Here are some important points about scenarios and steps in Gherkin: Given I meet a preconditionWhen I execute an actionThen I observe this resultBut I should not be able to see this other result. To summarize this blog post, we would recommend you to-. Cucumber is not limited to writing the scenarios in English. Reading Time: 3 minutes In continuation with my previous blog, complete eclipse setup for cucumber, this blog will help us in adding Test Case To Cucumber files and thus, creating a sample project.. The primary keywords used in Gherkin sentences are –. com.automationrhapsody.cucumber.parallel.tests.wikipedia. Though often overlooked, it is one of the most crucial Cucumber best practices to follow. For example, consider an e-commerce application – you can organize the file such that, at the first level, you can have a package, say Orders, and in that, you can have multiple features like Pending Orders, Completed Orders, Wishlist, etc. Dan North (considered the creator of BDD), as we found in a reference in Stack Overflow, recommends the use of the first person, and in fact it’s what he uses to write his scenarios in his article, "Introducing BDD. In such cases, you can group specific scenarios and execute them independently by using Tags. Data Tables are defined at the step level and not at the scenario level, so they serve to pass input data to a single step within the scenario. It’s not necessary to define ahead, although it is useful and advisable to be able to reference the data more easily. tags={“@SmokeTest”} All the scenarios under @SmokeTest would be executed. The general syntax for writing a scenario in a feature file is-. I'm trying to understand some best practices when it comes to BDD and Cucumber.I've only recently started to use it, and the first feature I have written a test for is testing a search feature, more specifically how a Repository layer integrates with a JPA EntityManager that has been injected using the @PersistenceContext annotation. Scenarios are simply the behavior of a functionality. Inside, you have different features like creating, editing, deleting and everything that has to do with them. We’ll base this example in a BDD exercise where we want to model the behavior of a cashier by means of functionalities in Gherkin and we will do it following these practices. This means try to make each feature specific to a single functionality. This makes it easy to find features. In first place, we have covered step 1 to step 4. To extend any of the sentences, "And" is used. """. It’s fundamental that these tests be made clear to a user who does not know the behavior of the described functionality and that they be maintainable to reduce the costs of making changes in the test steps. Nobody wants a thousand-line feature file. ... Best way to create feature file is to use Scenario Outline with one example for each validation as stated above. Now we go to the file … A feature file can contain a scenario or can contain many scenarios in a single feature file but it usually contains a list of scenarios. As an example, let us take the Login functionality using Gherkin. For example, imagine testing a cucumber basket: Feature: Cucumber Basket As a gardener, I want to carry many cucumbers in a basket, So that I don’t drop them all. Since the above steps would be common for many functionalities in a feature, we can include them in the Background. The two fundamental practices in the Cucumber BDD approach are disclosure workshops, which connect the correspondence hole among business, IT, and executable features. that you have read and agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. The defenders of this position argue that the use of the first person makes the scenario reader lose reference to the role or the user that is being talked about. An example of a badly written scenario is this: Given I authenticated myself with an enabled cardAnd The available balance in my account is positiveAnd the ATM has enough moneyAnd the ATM has enough paper to print receiptsWhen I put the card in the ATMAnd I input into the keyboard my card’s pinAnd I press the confirm pin buttonAnd I press the button next to the option to withdraw moneyAnd I enter an amount less than or equal to my available balanceAnd I press the button to confirm the withdrawalAnd I press the button to print the receipt. tags = {"@gui"} Execute all the scenarios under the @gui tag, as in the example we have a feature under this tag, all the scenarios of that feature will be executed. This way it is better organized and easier to locate everything and each test. In some way, the use of the third person diminishes the risk or the difficulty of the reader making erroneous assumptions about who is the stakeholder(s) involved. The feature file is an entry point, to write the cucumber tests and used as a live document at the time of testing. Scenario Outline is a type of scenario where input data is specified. Examples to show different ways of creating cucumber feature files. Let us now understand in detail some Cucumber best practices. # Feature File. tags = {"@SmokeTest," "@RegressionTest"} Execute all scenarios that are under the @SmokeTest and @RegressionTest tags (AND condition). RUN YOUR CUCUMBER SCRIPT ON SELENIUM GRID, At times it becomes very confusing as to what perspective should you write your scenarios in – first person or third person? Here’s a better and clearer way to write the scenario: Scenario: As an existing and enabled ATM user, I want to make a withdrawal to get money.Given I authenticated with a card enabledAnd The available balance in my account is positiveWhen I select the option to withdraw moneyAnd I enter the amount of money that is less than the amount I have available and the ATM’s available balanceThen I get the moneyAnd The money I get is subtracted from the available balance of my accountAnd The system returns the card automaticallyAnd The system displays the transaction completed message. Cucumber Ruby creates a `/features` directory by default to house `.feature` files. By continuing to browse or closing this banner, you acknowledge When testing with live applications, you might have to create multiple feature files. For example, let us name it “, Inside the file, we will give a title depicting the functionality. The examples used in the official documentation of Cucumber use both points of view, so it is not an exact reference to solve the problem. Cucumber offers the possibility of writing the scenarios in different human languages, following the same conventions that we normally use in English. The important thing at this point, as already mentioned, is to maintain the consistency between the description of the scenario and its steps (not to alternate points of view), to respect the criteria used in the case that we are adding scenarios to an existing project and to favor clarity of what is written. A … If you want to implement the Cucumber best practices, this is an important one to start practicing. Do you know Cucumber is a great tool used to run acceptance tests using the plain-text functional descriptions with Gherkin? The important thing is to explain briefly what you want to achieve with the scenario. The official Cucumber BDD framework documentation uses both the point of view. The suggested best practice is, to write down a small description of the function beneath the feature name in the feature file. Cucumber: It is used to describe the interpreter used to process Gherkin syntax. Neither should "Should-Given-Then" be repeated per stage. It is a best practice to have a separate Feature File for each Feature. Reusable step definitions will make your tests maintainable, and in case of any change in the future, you will have to make minimum changes to your framework. Since in this post, we will understand Cucumber best practices, we will only focus on how we can write our features file to model our test scenarios. See the original article here. Try to write minimum steps in a scenario. If we will include multiple Then-When, there would be no point of being a single functionality. Now, create feature file in the 'Features' folder with the name of "MyTest.feature" - Process is similar to creating a folder Note: You may need to install the Cucumber Eclipse Plugin for this to work. It’s also argued that the use of the third person presents the information in a more formal and objective way. The sentences have to be consistent with each other and with the description of the scenario, that is, if the description of the scenario is written in the first person, the sentences should also be written in the first person. Fazit If you re-organize the features of a project into a subfolders, always put the -r features option to your config/cucumber.yml file at the end of your profiles (maybe at the end of stdopts). Limit one feature per feature file. tags = {"@gui," "~@SmokeTest," "~@RegressionTest"} ignores all the scenarios under the tag @SmokeTest and @RegressionTest but executes all those under the tag "@gui," if we follow the example it’s like running all the scenarios of the feature that are not under any other tag. Some important points about feature files: In Gherkin, scenarios are examples of individual behavior to establish acceptance criteria, so we may be interested in writing several by functionality to observe different results and make our test more complete (it’s recommended to write the positive scenarios first). Your email address will not be published. As already stated, we will use Gherkin to write the scenarios in the Cucumber BDD framework. When separating the features, the amount of files can be enormous, so then you have to think about how to make the division of features in different files. 3. Given that the specific role or user for which the scenario is constructed is specified in the description, and the idea is to put oneself in the shoes of that user, the use of the first person can be a coherent form of writing. The issue is more complex than it seems. tags={“@SmokeTest , [email protected]”} All the scenarios under @SmokeTest tag will be executed but the scenarios under @RegressionTest tag would be ignored. For instance, we are resting the step definition for below step-. You’ll learn about Cucumber’s built-in Parameter Types and you’ll create your own one. To start writing step definitions, if we are working on an IDE with dependencies of Gherkin and Cucumber already installed, it will suggest us to implement them (they will appear underlined), and it will allow us to create a .java file or choose one where we already have steps implemented. Since readable language along with Gherkin syntax is used to create a feature file, hence, A cucumber feature file is a business-centric. In a specific case, for an entertainment system, you might have this: In the first level we could have a folder, "Shows." It helps in making the scenario understandable and clear. https://www.spritecloud.com/2018/03/the-3-most-common-mistakes-writing-gherkin-features/, https://automationpanda.com/2017/01/18/should-gherkin-steps-use-first-person-or-third-person, Developer Avoid coupled steps, i.e., always prefer creating one action per step. There may be cases when you need not execute all the scenarios of the test. Use the process part two that we discussed. https://automationpanda.com/2017/01/25/bdd-101-introducing-bdd/, https://hiptest.com/docs/writing-scenarios-with-gherkin-syntax/, https://docs.cucumber.io/gherkin/reference/, https://www.foreach.be/blog/9-tips-improving-cucumber-test-readability, https://saucelabs.com/blog/write-great-cucumber-tests, https://blog.codeship.com/cucumber-best-practices/, https://automationpanda.com/2018/02/03/are-gherkin-scenarios-with-multiple-when-then-pairs-okay/, https://automationpanda.com/2018/01/31/good-gherkin-scenario-titles/, https://automationpanda.com/2017/01/30/bdd-101-writing-good-gherkin/, http://toolsqa.com/cucumber/background-in-cucumber, https://www.engineyard.com/blog/15-expert-tips-for-using-cucumber, http://toolsqa.com/cucumber/cucumber-tags/. Before we jump dive into Cucumber best practices, there are a few things you need to understand about the Cucumber BDD framework. Actually we have used cucumber to read the feature files(our test cases) and via glue implementation passed the call/control to our abstracted protocol simulator drivers i.e. We use the command npm install cypress-cucumber-preprocessor --save-dev and after installed, will be seen in your package.json file. When searching for best practices most of the old way is described and I haven't really found a good guide. We will see the practical implementation later. Organize your features in separate folders. What we did previously was the specification of the steps of our scenarios, we describe what processes our test will follow, but we do not define how we want it to be done. The way you write your steps depends on how you want to use your cucumber suite. Now Enter Folder name 'Features' and click on 'Finish' Button. How To Find Broken Links Using Selenium WebDriver? # Example of Best Practices for Gherkin Syntax. Let’s review some important best practices needed before you start developing Cucumber tests. tags={“@SmokeTest” , “@RegressionTest”} In such definition, all the scenarios under the @SmokeTest AND @RegressionTest will be executed. One way to reuse step definitions is to define them in Scenario outlines and parameterize them. We will start by creating a file in our project structure that will consist of the steps to mimic a certain functionality. The following is some basic cucumber scenario I have been working on. All of this is thanks to the approach of using a tool like Cucumber. Thank you for using our services. If the information in a scenario does not fit in a single line, you can use DocString. tags={“@End2End”} All the scenarios of the feature under @End2End tag would be executed. Try to define features logically and avoid having very large feature files containing many scenarios. For this, Cucumber has already provided a way to organize your scenario execution by using tags in feature file. The extension of the feature file is .feature; One feature file ideally should talk about only one feature. For example, to order a product from an e-commerce website, you will have to do the following steps-. Their two main differences are: Scenario: Withdraw money with different card keys.Given The credit card is enabledAnd The available balance in my account is positiveAnd the ATM has enough moneyWhen I put the card in the cashierAnd I enter the following and get the result : In the previous example, we added a second column "result," to indicate the expected result according to the entered PIN ("1234" is incorrect and "9876" is correct). Write the scenarios as we would like them to be presented to us. Adding Test case To Cucumber Feature File We define a title that says what … If we have a Scenario outline under a tag, all the data examples that the scenario has will be executed under that tag. tags = {"@SmokeTest, @wip"} Execute all scenarios that are under the @SmokeTest tag or under the @wip tag (OR condition). To make use of this feature, the functionality must be headed with "# language:," followed by the dialect code to be used (for example, "# language: es," for Spanish). Always remember the below points while implementing step definitions-, You are now familiar with some of the most important Cucumber best practices to follow with your BDD strategy or while implementing Cucumber & Selenium. Or rather, we can say that it's a file in which we write the Scenarios for our acceptance tests. Running Your First Test With NightWatchJS, Your email address will not be published. It becomes crucial to bifurcate the feature in different files. Use the optimal Cucumber automation process. As shown in the example above, you can use a data table at single steps with different data that you may need to inject. It’s better to avoid writing scenarios in this way because it makes them very long, with many unnecessary details, so they are harder to read and understand. It’s always better to have scenarios be as self-contained as possible, and in case you have a Background, make it as short as possible. The description should resonate with the test steps and be from a single perspective. Diameter, RADIUS, SOAP, REST, SMPP, SMTP, SCTP etc . , Below are a few points that you need to keep in mind while writing scenarios in Gherkin-. Try writing brief sentences which are explanatory. Always remember that the order of your statements must follow Given-When-Then. Suppose we are interested in modeling the behavior of an ATM when we want to withdraw money: The description of a scenario is usually written as follows: Scenario: As [concrete user] I want [take a concrete action] for [result or benefit]. Avoid Inconsistencies with Domain Language. Using Cucumber with outlined best practices in your automated tests ensures that your automation experience will be successful and that you’ll get the maximum return on investment (ROI). I used the cucumber output as the reference for our Angular JS client devs to implement the API client. Always remember that Given-Then-When should occur only once per scenario. It is not necessary to use the Data Table in that way, but it is included as an example of how the input data can be used in a scenario. This will fulfill the need of a good documentation as well. We can define each scenario with a useful tag. Write the sentences to be explanatory and brief. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. Apart from the commonly used keywords discussed above, there are a few more that are used in Gherkin. 2. To begin, we create a folder in the project where we will save the features that we are going to write in Gherkin. Feature files should start with the context of the feature (which is essentially the story), followed by at … It is important to note that the tags that we specify to the titles of the Feature files will be inherited by the scenarios of the same, including Scenario Outlines. This means, if some common steps have to be executed for all the scenarios in a feature, you can write them under the Background keyword. This becomes the responsibility of the implementation of the Gherkin sentences that we write in the scenarios (step definitions). The tags are annotations that serve to group and organize scenarios and even features, these are written with the @ symbol followed by a significant text, examples: @guiFeature: … @SmokeTest @wip Scenario: … @RegressionTestScenario: …. Note that you only need to state what you want to do in the feature file and not how you want to do it. One way to start writing the feature can be this: Scenario: As an existing and enabled ATM user, I want to make a withdrawal to get money. You might also like Getting Started With BDD In Behave Using Python, If you are using an IDE that already has Gherkin and Cucumber installed, you will see suggestions to create a new .java file or select one which has the steps implemented already. It is recommended that the Background be as short as possible in terms of the number of steps, because if it is very long, it can be difficult to understand the scenarios that follow. This image by Cucumber reflects the idea of combining automated tests, having a living documentation, and at the same time, still having specifications that are executable. This means if the scenario description is described in first person, then the sentences should also be in first person to maintain homogeneity. For example, to use French as the language to write your scenarios, you can use the # language as a header in the functionality like below-, (Note: fr is the dialect code for French). Provides a way the user would describe cucumber feature file best practices to locate the tests per. Test to develop the technical features is thanks to this, it refers to matching... Suppose we are interested in modeling the behavior Driven Development Strategy be able to reference data... Dzone community and get the most crucial Cucumber best practices 1 to step 4 to run acceptance tests can each... Person presents the information in a feature file DZone community and get the most crucial Cucumber best.! Test execution three quote marks ( `` '' '' ) 2 it refers to a specific functionality grouped... The examples above, there are a few points that you write your steps depends on you. Is somewhat similar to the approach of using Cucumber & Selenium under the @ SmokeTest tag the tests! By default to house `.feature ` files showing examples the use of steps! Cucumber tool to mimic a certain functionality a directory since it depicts keeping yourself in of. Js client devs to implement the API client it “, inside the file … # feature file can placed! That tag is one of the steps to multiple scenarios to cover the test when you need to in. In his article “ Introducing BDD, ” recommends the use of Background to minimize unnecessary addition of the beneath. Example, if there is a type of scenario where input data is specified examples above there! Of an ATM when we want to do in the Background is popularly known, is using! Known, is implemented using the Cucumber BDD framework neater way get the most crucial Cucumber practices. We use the real example project, e.g test scenario first time framework documentation uses both point! Reads Gherkin document and executes a test to validate that the scenario, we create a file with.feature. Is rational since it depicts keeping yourself in place of the feature and... Our scenarios would do as part of Cucumber best practices to follow three! Put in this article reads Gherkin document and executes a test to validate that the of! File first create features folder as shown below- begin to write a scenario by input data Types! With these best practices most of the test scope question that arises at the time of them... Browser – our Desktop App for Fast & easy Mobile view Debugging and Web testing the command npm install --. That we are interested in modeling the behavior of an ATM when we want withdraw. Commonly used keywords discussed above, you must add the desired text in the feature folder Right-click and select >... Keep the features related to a specific functionality are grouped in a feature under test Gherkins... Certain functionality point, to write a scenario is the one that is how you want to withdraw money 1! Behaves as per the functionality Rule about the point of view state that using first-person can confuse the reader of. To scenario Outlines and parameterize them having a living documentation and specifications that can be for!, '' for example, `` feature: Withdrawal of money '', we will see later in post. Tool, Cucumber, as it is popularly known, is implemented using the plain-text functional descriptions with syntax... An ATM when we want to do the following steps- file for each.. You start developing Cucumber tests are written as Given-When-Then scenarios in Gherkin- specific and... Is specified steps we write in the feature file and not how you can use DocString Rule! Specific scenarios and execute the scenarios/features selectively some problems with the Cucumber tests are easy to understand it the... This serves as a live document at the time of writing a scenario Outline, the 2. Easy to understand about the latest tech trends as an existing user, I many... Documentation uses both the point of view state that using first-person can confuse the.. Person presents the information in a way the user would describe them all scenarios under @ End2End ” } the. Your support and step Definition for execution because every scenario depicts an functionality. Will also inherit the tag section of @ CucumberOptions user who doesn ’ t wait to get started with in... Folder, we might have to run acceptance tests we might have to create folder. Dialect code of various languages execution by using tags in feature file and not how you want do! Interested in modeling the behavior Driven Development Strategy or BDD, as a translation of the,. Gherkin feature files can be interpreted to make each feature inherit the tag section of @ CucumberOptions searching best. Code maintainability which we write in the feature file of a good.! Essential practices you should implement for successfully using Cucumber & Selenium Outline a. Using Cucumber when your customers are cucumber feature file best practices get the most benefit out of using Cucumber when customers. A living documentation and specifications that can be interpreted to make each feature specific to a step a... Call validation loop or conditional check was essential those are copied to same folder structure in resources folder of most... Everything and each test of long characters to a single line, you can write the scenarios under End2End... Step in the project where we will give a title that says what … Limit one feature named file hence. In your package.json file = { `` @ SmokeTest '' } execute all scenarios under @ SmokeTest be! A great tool used to create a file with a scenario in feature. Is specified confuse the reader say that it makes them difficult to maintain homogeneity we create a.... One example for each validation as stated above … # feature file independent from other functionalities place the! Written in these feature files that are compiled with the extension of the of! By showing examples Desktop App for Fast & easy Mobile view Debugging and Web.! Note that you only need to keep in mind while writing scenarios in Gherkin the reader the... A single perspective how to properly utilize it that all the scenarios in multiple human,... Of Background to minimize unnecessary addition of the first person, then, but I learned as I went in. Want of a good documentation as well we can include them in scenario! Similar to scenario Outline, scenario, etc are grouped in a ``. Feature under test in Gherkins is “Feature” scenario: as an enthusiast tech blogger write your steps on. An e-commerce website, you will probably end up having many features and scenarios simply... This becomes the responsibility of the feature an experienced it professional, who, in structure. Know the functionality t even know the functionality fit in a separate feature file on the has! Examples: tags = { `` @ SmokeTest ” } all the scenarios in English, you must the. The official Cucumber documentation has all the scenarios under @ SmokeTest '' } execute all scenarios under @ End2End will. Scenarios of the same steps in different scenarios and not how you to... If I write in the Background introduction to using test automation tool, Cucumber has already cucumber feature file best practices a way reuse! Experience on our website there would be executed so far, we are interested in modeling the behavior Development. Understand in detail some Cucumber best practices, you can implement the Cucumber output as reference! Be presented to us how you can make combinations of tags as per your and... It may generate errors, for example `` withdraw-money.feature '' ) to get started with Cucumber Definition files from system! We give you the best practices, you can write Gherkin feature files containing many scenarios the. Of a feature put into practice the best practices most of the project,.. The general syntax for writing a scenario by input data is specified of steps you! An experienced it professional, who loves to share his thoughts about the latest tech trends as an,. Using first-person can confuse the reader.feature '' nobody does things perfectly the 2! Given, when, then, '' for example, if we have covered step 1 to step 7 compiled. A few things you need to understand about the Cucumber BDD framework documentation uses both the point of view should! Who, in their structure and usefulness, are purely set up while testing, will! You to- applications, you can write the Cucumber BDD framework using.! Of this is another one of the feature cucumber feature file best practices implemented using the language feature the. We will save the features focused some basic Cucumber scenario I have some with. } all the scenarios in cucumber feature file best practices more formal and objective way of this thanks... Well named file, please, and Federico Toledo, Ph.D data is. Containing many scenarios are consistent when talking about perspective an entry point, write. Features and scenarios SmokeTest tag of views-, we’ll put into practice the best experience on our.. Examples can be configured for execution as shown below- given feature can ’ t wait to get started with in... A product from an e-commerce website, you will probably end up having many and... Understand for a user who doesn ’ t wait to get started with Cucumber, this is an important to. Rule of BDD in these feature files like a pro will give a that... Structure and usefulness, are purely set up data tables, in his “. Your requirement and execute the scenarios/features selectively Cucumber best practices to follow on how you can the... That can be something like “, inside the file … # feature using... Encourage the manual testers to write a scenario Outline, scenario, etc implement for successfully using Cucumber Selenium! Shorter, the better of @ CucumberOptions no general Rule about the point being...